Saturday, January 1, 2022

The long and short of it: Jupiter's ingress, the January New Moon, and reasons for hope in the New Year


We know that one New Moon, however impressive, does not an entire year make, but today I choose to feel hopeful...


...that the January 2nd lunation in Capricorn, which follows  pretty closely after Jupiter's re-entry into Pisces, the sign it co-rules with Neptune, will at least feel like a breakthrough into something discernibly better for the year ahead. Perhaps the convergence of all that with 2022's lovely Quadrantid meteor shower will strengthen this impression even more for us.  

As we'll see in the lunation chart we'll examine below (Chart 2), this confluence of events is likely to feel especially significant if we are willing to approach the coming new year with a more collective and dare I say Nature-focused sensibility. It's hard to miss that most of today's burning challenges relate to successfully navigating our lives within Nature's limitations, and will only be solved with intense collaboration between the personal and collective levels. 

If you happened to catch the recent Hollywood version of Humanity's catastrophic refusal to take facts of Nature seriously, perhaps you also concluded that we, by contrast, must Look Up (and to the experts and the collective reality all around us) because that's where the answers are. This can sometimes be an elusive fact, but in the end, Astrology is also about the natural world and our lives within it; using it to avoid dealing with Nature or to abstract the natural world out of relevance would be a tragic distortion. 

In fact, problem-solving ideas necessarily span the personal and collective levels, and if we haven't already been doing so, the astrological year ahead will hopefully coax us to begin thinking about society and our roles in it from that perspective. For instance, it isn't Biden's or Trump's or any leader's sole responsibility to rid us of COVID; we have to make sure that happens by cooperating with all expert recommendations, in consultation with our physicians if need be. 

In a healthy society, fueled by common values and at least some common understanding of the facts, not to mention what "healthy" even means, we (here in the U.S. at least) wouldn't have the same acute anti-vaxxer phenomenon that keeps us in thrall to COVID. Trouble is, noone can create and maintain a healthy, democratic (small "d") society for us--it has to come from us. As we examine the lunation chart below (Chart 2), perhaps we can remember that the mundane Moon represents us, We the People.


Today's cosmic landscape 

Along with that awe-inspiring Quadrantid meteor shower, which could be more visible this year in the northern hemisphere because it happens to coincide closely with the dark of a New Moon, we will experience a number of significant transits and notable astrological phenomena over the next few months, but today we'll focus on two that happen one right after another: first, the December 28th re-entry of Jupiter into Pisces (after a months' long retrograde "dance"), and second, the January 2nd New Moon lunation.  

The first event is significant because in Chart 1 we'll find Jupiter at a significant moment in the retrograde "dance" it began by stationing retrograde at 2 deg 11' Pisces last June 20th. Sign ingresses are not typically complicated by being part of a retrograde journey, so to my eye there's more significance there than usual, as well. 

When Jupiter turned direct last October 18th at 22 deg 20' Aquarius, it gave a boost to the Saturn-Uranus agenda (Aquarius rulers) for the final quarter of 2021, which has turned out to be a volatile, complicated period in which the U.S. rule of Law (Saturn and Uranus together often promote "law and order") has been reaffirmed in a number of high profile cases. 

4 students killed, 7 wounded by a "Xmas gift."
This has been proven out in the response to the tragic Oxford High School shooting in Michigan, for starters,  in which the prosecution is holding even the 15-year-old school shooter's parents accountable to manslaughter charges because they enabled, rather than stopped their son (they had a chance to do so the same day of the shooting) from killing four fellow students and wounding seven others in a shooting rampage with a gun the parents bought for him for Christmas. 

Strongly applying the rule of law can register as harsh and authoritarian when abused, of course, but in the case of this shooting tragedy, the public seems to concur that something extraordinary is called for, for the sake of justice.   

Then there were instances of authority figures imposing "law and order" like the So. African travel ban that Biden issued after SA scientists announced (on November 24th)  their discovery of "Omicron," the new, super-virulent COVID-19 variant  that is now bedeviling the world. The ban was well-conceived (IMHO), but often seemed unfair since South Africa's Omicron numbers have actually been reined in pretty quickly compared to ours. Would we have preferred they not tell us about their discovery? Biden has since lifted the ban, but the resentment it opened might remain. Scorpio Mars opposed Taurus Uranus Rx and together they t-squared the Jupiter/Saturn midpoint in Aquarius (chart not shown); there was no easy way to proceed with that decision, but Biden erred on the side of protection and security. The early Sagittarius Sun widely trined the late Cancer Moon, which opposed Capricorn Pluto. 

Reps. Bennie Thompson & Liz Cheney co-chair the 1/6 House Committee
Somewhat harsh-sounding authority has also been applied to those attempting to subvert and refuse their cooperation with the January 6th House Committee Investigation--it's amazing what progress the committee has made, considering the high-level resistance. In light of several high-profile refusals to honor subpoenas, the Committee has moved so far to hold both Trump's former adviser Steve Bannon and Trump's former Chief of Staff Mark Meadows in contempt of Congress for refusing Congressional subpoenas. Bannon surrendered to authorities, claiming he and others will be "taking down the Biden regime." 

Mark Meadows has yet to be indicted by the Justice Department, but clearly Bannon is doing what he can to promote the "Biden as autocrat" narrative. This narrative, which the Saturn-Uranus energies of our times can be construed to support, resonates with Trump supporters, of course--surely we haven't heard the last of this as long as Bannon and others in his same fix aren't allowed to totally evade accountability. 

How to wield "right power" is an ever-present theme with this fixed Saturn-Uranus cycle, and of course, one person's sense of being oppressed and "martyred" is another's sense of justice. That Biden has refused to extend executive privilege over Trump documents that the Committee has requested from the National Archives undoubtedly also figures into this "narrative." Is our democracy not worth protecting? If the facts are what the evidence before the House Committee seems to say they are,  is plotting to corruptly overturn an election not a crime worth prosecuting in our books anymore? We say we believe in the rule of Law; does that mean some people are simply above it?  

Then there's the Supreme Court's gutless, but clearly ideologically-driven decision to "look the other way" as Texas rodeo-stomps all over women's reproductive rights and the protections of Roe v. Wade. This also happened during that period between Jupiter's station direct and now; if the Court goes on to completely overturn Roe v. Wade in June--using a 15-week abortion ban case presented by Mississippi as a pretext--women and their families will surely feel the heavy weight of an authoritarian, Jupiter-enhanced Saturn-Uranus square.  Right power is becoming a more and more elusive concept with this increasingly toxic wing of our government, and I suspect we will see the further unraveling of its integrity ahead. 

On another, more global note, equally alarming have been the dire warnings that came out of the COP21 conference about the road ahead with climate change, if nearly impossible sounding changes don't transpire.  In keeping with the discussion about Saturn-Uranus-style "right power" that has been so highlighted since Jupiter went direct in October, there's actually a notable lack of power invested in the Paris Accord, despite the world's "agreement" that its imperatives should guide our actions. 

A view of recent wildfires in Colorado.
Depending upon the goodwill or enlightened self-interest (Jupiter in Aquarius, moving into Pisces?) of nations to sufficiently reduce their carbon emissions seems like a fool's errand to me, designed to make sure that we do nothing more than nibble around the edges of the problem. If carbon emissions can't be drastically reduced voluntarily, then perhaps Saturn-Uranus energies will need to be unleashed with more authority than we've seen thus far. No central world government exists to demand anything from everyone at this juncture, but it's likely that the Earth itself will make sure we pay more attention to its imperatives. Are we enjoying the non-stop environmental crises in the news these days? 

Here's where that necessary collective focus mentioned much earlier comes into play: every crisis has our name on it these days, and the situation won't get better unless we cooperate to make it so.  Will the world's powers wait to be forced into submission? Or will they remain willfully ignorant while the world burns? No worries...they can always take off in their billionaire-provided rocket ships

All snarkiness aside, a crisis of the magnitude that's developing in front of our eyes demands that we acknowledge climate change as the serious imminent threat it is. I'm encouraged by the aspirations of the Biden administration, but one small-minded Senator from the coal-mining state of West Virginia seems hell-bent on standing in the way of those aspirations, and that simply can't be acceptable. Maybe it will take today's environmentally-committed youth taking over the reins of power to re-envision and re-engineer both our political and economic systems; if so, the sooner, the better. 

Meanwhile (and not unrelated), our current global systems, very deeply in thrall to the fossil fuel powers-that-be, have landed us in the precarious position of heightened tensions between the U.S. and nuclear powers, Iran and Russia. I can't think of a more perfect "chess move" on Iran's and Russia's part if their joint aim is to even further delay the world's ability to roll back carbon emissions. 

We know that Iran and Russia have been allied against U.S. influence in the Middle East since at least the beginning of the ongoing Syrian civil war (from 2011),  and they've only deepened their mutual support since then. They're also united in wanting to evade and/or roll back U.S. and E.U. sanctions against them. With Iran, those sanctions (levied against them for their nuclear program) have had a profound impact on their oil exports and revenues.  

Can sanctions be an effective deterrent?
With Russia, the threat of sanctioning their oil and gas exports (which almost happened in 2014 and could be on the table now, with their latest threats against Ukraine) could also harm U.S. allies in Europe, so it's a less effective deterrent. The long and the short of all this only confirms that the current tension is some kind of tortured mix between geopolitical, economic and fossil-fuel-oriented priorities. Again, the use of "right power" (Saturn-Uranus) here will be key--we've seen Biden speak with Russian president Putin more than once during this period since Jupiter went direct. 

Unfortunately, this is a much bigger story than we can address here today: for instance, will Iran and Russia use their grievances over sanctions as an excuse to interfere in our next election, as they tried to do in 2020? Deliberately provoking war could be one very risky way to that end for them, of course--a story for another day, but for now, let's just say that it will take real leadership on the part of the U.S. and E.U. to keep these tensions in check between now and 2023, when Pluto begins its gradual exit (extended by retrograde dynamics) from resource-hungry Capricorn. 


The astrology

With all of the above in mind, let's now examine the chart for Jupiter's re-entry into Pisces (Chart 1, cast for Washington, D.C.) this past week on December 28th. With the "big guy" less invested in promoting Saturn-Uranus's "law and order" agenda, what will the likely focus be?


Chart 1. Jupiter re-enters Pisces, December 28, 2021, 11:09:23 p.m., Washington, D.C. Tropical Equal Houses, True Node. All charts cast on Kepler 8.0 and courtesy of Cosmic Patterns Software.

Jupiter falls in the 6th house here, along with Pallas and Neptune (Pisces) and squares the Nodal Axis (Gemini-Sagittarius). North Node conjoins Ceres in the 9th, suggesting that the forward-looking thrust--for the sake of the work force and people's health--needs to be on nurturing rational ideologies that value sustainable material security (Ceres). This Node trines Venus and Pluto, conjunct in earthy Capricorn, but the So. Node in Sagittarius also widely sextiles this Capricorn pair, reflecting that the world's economic systems are riding a teeter-totter of obligations, growth and power ambitions and debts that keep various stake holders from effecting any true change. 

The limited movement this closed system allows is just enough to look like something is shifting, or change is happening, when it really isn't. Our systems will probably have to break out of this perpetual, fruitless game to truly address the challenges of our time. We might hope that Jupiter's t-square to this axis will force some true change, but I suspect the type of change it brings will sneak up on us unawares because it will soon be catching up with Neptune in later Pisces for their new cycle (launching in April). Could the so-called "Great Resignation" be a sneak preview? According to the Harvard Business Review:

"Employees between 30 and 45 years old have had the greatest increase in resignation rates, with an average increase of more than 20% between 2020 and 2021."

The researchers writing this article conclude that there are a variety of reasons for the waves of resignations, which seem to be heavily represented in both the health care and tech industries, where the work loads have often become simply unsustainable. A lot of mid-level tech jobs are being done from home (many 30-45 somethings have children at home), and between our inadequate childcare system and the on-again, off-again need to participate in their kids' virtual learning, working at home has only created added pressure and longer work days. My sons' families are being impacted by this, as I'm sure many of yours are; the problems are very real. 

On a less heavy note, I'd like to believe that the 30-45 somethings that have been resigning in droves are also rethinking their priorities and what they want out of their working lives. Corporations haven't really been faced with workforces like this that choose to jump off that going-nowhere teeter-totter because they no longer agree with the "rules" of the game; maybe the pandemic has actually rendered something we can celebrate?  These 30-45 somethings are also climbing the ranks of national power--maybe another reason to look forward to what they can do?

Notice the wedge formation created by chart ruler Mercury's trine/sextile aspects (from Capricorn) with the ASC-DSC axis (Virgo-Pisces) and Neptune (Pisces). Given the blend of mutable and cardinal water/earth energies here, this is likely to be much more impactful than the passive, soft configuration it first appears to be. With Neptune involved, I suspect there's more going on beneath the surface of awareness than we might think. 

Mercury also conjoins Venus and Pluto (Capricorn) at the same time it sextiles Neptune: the U.S. economy and its relationship to the pandemic (levers are definitely being tweaked to keep things from getting too far out of control) seem to be the main focus here--inflation never fails to effect change, but we should probably be careful what we ask for. As we've already seen, there's been considerable fall-out in the corporate world with waves of resignations, but there could be more surprising developments to come.

Jupiter co-rules Pisces, of course, and with the exception of the Moon and Pallas, there will be no other planets coming between it and Neptune between now and April when they launch their new cycle just shy of 24 deg. Pisces. Venus will have joined them in Pisces (the sign of her exaltation) by then--this strikes me as a possible turning point in the pandemic, but we'll see if such optimism is warranted. The Jupiter/Neptune (midpoint, Pisces) here exactly sextiles Uranus (Rx, Taurus), but it also semi-sextiles Saturn (Aquarius); we can expect both disruptions and "reality checks" in several key areas, including (but certainly not limited to) the pandemic and the exercise of Justice. 

One last major point warrants consideration here: the Moon (Scorpio) widely opposes Uranus (Rx, Taurus), sextiles the Sun, widely t-squares Saturn (Aquarius) and trines Jupiter (Pisces). It appears that shockwaves (perhaps financial, with the 2-8 Moon-Uranus axis) will continue challenging people (Moon), at the same time we will continue feeling a bit too repressed by the world we're faced with at the moment. The possibility of financial shockwaves is reinforced by Mercury-Venus-Pluto (Capricorn) square Eris (Aries), as well. 

Still, creative and spiritual impulses will find fruitful outlets, perhaps even within the workplace (6th house Jupiter), and it's possible that our workplaces will attempt to provide more rewarding experiences than usual.  We're not out of the pandemic woods yet, clearly, but our workplaces may attempt to be more attentive to human needs than usual, and that's no small victory.

One detail of note before we move on to the next chart: Jupiter has not just stepped into home sign Pisces here, it's done this within the context of its post-retrograde shadow period. That period began when Jupiter turned direct in October; ever since, it's been working its way back to where its retrograde dance began last June, so it can then forge forward, refreshed and renewed. In fact, this process will take until January 9th--well within this Capricorn lunation--when Jupiter reaches that 2 deg 11' Pisces point once again. Long story short, it's worth marking that date on the calendar--perhaps we'll feel that a turning point of sorts has been reached around that time. 



The Capricorn New Moon on January 2nd

Let's turn our attention now to the fast-approaching Capricorn New Moon lunation. The chart will, of course, look familiar: how much could actually change within so few days after the event reflected in Chart 1? Yet, this lunation brings us a very different chart due to the shift in house placements and the lunar context, and as we'll see, that shift now draws our attention to some different dynamics.

Chart 2. New Moon, January 2, 2022, 1:33:20 p.m., Washington, D.C. Tropical Equal Houses, True Node. All charts cast on Kepler 8.0 and courtesy of Cosmic Patterns Software.

Obviously, the point here is to tease out what this Capricorn lunation will "seed" in our public discourse and collective life at this time and place. Those of you who are familiar with the U.S. Sibly chart will immediately see how close this lunation is happening to exactly opposing that chart's Sun, representing the nation-at-large, but also its executive leadership. So it's difficult to miss that this chart has a "message" for the American "project" heading into this coming year.

If nothing else, we can't help but be reminded of the vicious assault on American democracy that happened one short year ago. Almost exactly one year ago on January 6, 2020, we watched in horror as crowds of individuals caught up in Trump's "big Lie" about the 2020 election being "stolen" from him attacked the U.S. Capitol building from several directions at once, using whatever weapons they had on hand to smash windows, breach Capitol Police lines and force their way into the Senate and House chambers.

The "gallows" they erected outside of the building was enough to send chills down any observers' spines: it signaled that the calls to "hang Mike Pence" were more than just idle threats. Trump specifically made Pence a target for their rage by suggesting in a speech earlier that day that Pence could, if he "did the right thing," refuse to certify Biden's victory. This was, of course, not true: Pence's role was basically ceremonial and completely restricted by the electoral votes documented (and already certified) in each state. That so much of this attack on the Capitol and our democracy was based on a fabricated, delusionary "hero" image of Trump (pictured on some of the protest banners like a kind of "Rambo" character) was also chilling--if nothing else, we learned that when angry people who have become that untethered from reality are unleashed by their "leader," they can be convinced to do just about anything. 

Thankfully, the Capitol Police--at great peril and injury to themselves (including one death on that day and more later)--were able to protect key targets like Pence, Mitt Romney and Nancy Pelosi, whose office was occupied and vandalized by some of the insurgents--heaven only knows what would have happened had the marauders actually found her. Would we have seen an actual lynch mob in action, egged on by Trump's inability to accept defeat, on national TV?  Thankfully, we didn't have to find out, but that was no thanks to Trump, who responded with what we're learning via the 1/6 House Committee investigation was deliberate slowness.

Sun conjoins Moon (Capricorn), semi-sextiles Saturn (Aquarius), sextiles Pallas (Pisces) and trines Uranus (Rx, Taurus). It's significant, I think, that the lunation quietly glows in the 8th house of this chart; our need as a society for psychological and spiritual nurturing is intense these days. Lunar energies can feel harshly demanding and unsupportive in Saturn-ruled Capricorn, but Saturn has wisdom for our times that we sorely need as well. It lends much-needed structure to our lives; it helps us to draw the best out of ourselves and to stay on track towards the goals we want to achieve. It helps us stay grounded in facts and the "real world." The seeds (literal or figurative) that we plant under this wintry lunation are tempered and hardened by the cold for the spring growing season ahead. 

Of the aspects to this lunation point noted above, the trine to Uranus (Rx, Taurus) leaps off the page at me because it reinforces the importance of grounding ourselves in the natural world at this time. Nature's seasonal retreat into its wintry "death" is a yearly phenonenon, of course, but this 8th house, earthy lunation might be trying to tell us that the material world we think we've built up around ourselves is more fragile than we might think.  

The death toll in KY from this tornado is now 77.
For instance, a winter tornado the likes of which we've never really seen just ripped through Kentucky and surrounding states on December 10th, and the most destructive wildfires ever to hit Boulder, CO just happened this past week: This trine has the potential to produce more unpleasant surprises like this, but hopefully, Uranus's 12th house placement will "contain" those possibilities for at least this lunar month. 

Uranus does co-dispose Mercury, the MC and Saturn in Aquarius at the top of the chart, however, so I do think we can expect there will be significant scientific revelations and perhaps a few surprises (perhaps even refreshing ones) this month. As somber as we may find Saturn and Capricorn energies, this lunation is not all "gloom and doom." We should, however, find it deeply thought-provoking. It seems to me that a best case scenario would be that it opens our hearts to the awesome, delicate balance of Life that unites us all, because that balance has been wounded (Chiron squares this lunation from Aries). 

Jupiter (Pisces)is also elevated in this chart, in its watery home sign and in the 10th. The entire discussion earlier about Jupiter's movements these days applies here, only perhaps with more prominence and more relevance on the world stage. I suspect we'll see some re-energizing of our nation's naval resources: today's geopolitical challenges may require a renewed U.S. presence on the seas, and there have been voices calling for such a renewal for some time. 

 We're already seeing a push towards more "guardians" for our newly-formed Space wing of the Air Force, as well  --it's not difficult to imagine why, with Pluto finishing out in Capricorn and entering Aquarius in the not-too-distant future, but these things take years to build up, and this Jupiter square Nodal axis (Gemini-Sagittarius) spanning the 1st and 7th, accompanied by strong Aquarius energy at the top of the chart, feels like a step in that direction. Another point of reflection: an 8th house lunation is also all about how we deploy resources in society.   

Mars (Sagittarius) sextiles Saturn (Aquarius), squares Pallas-Neptune (Pisces)and inconjoins Uranus (Rx). The 7th house placement of Mars here (a house it rules in this chart) suggests that we could experience some volatility in the coming month. Mars also semi-sextiles the lunation itself; volatility could co-exist uneasily with attempts to get the serious work of the nation accomplished. Notice that Mars is disposed by Jupiter, suggesting that whatever form the volatility takes, it will likely be enabled and egged on by viral social media. This could also have ramifications for our COVID numbers, of course; between the Mars square and the inconjunct to 12th house Uranus (Rx) I suspect hospitals will continue to be stretched to their limits, if not beyond. The National Guard has already been called out in some places to help; we're likely to see more of that with these energies. 

A word about the Venus-Pluto conjunction that falls in the 9th house here: I've covered this conjunction pretty deeply in past posts and other contexts (here and here), but this chart makes incredibly clear that geopolitical and economic power and resources are even more inextricably linked than ever these days. This is all confirmed by the earthiness of this conjunction, compounded by the "leverage"-related Venus-Pluto "wedge" formation with the Gemini-Sagittarius Nodal axis. If geopolitical conflict of any kind breaks out, it's very likely to be triggered by dysfunctional natural resource-related concerns.


Final thoughts

Clearly, the charts we've covered above are rich with information that we will need for the path ahead in newly-minted 2022. Notice that almost everything in Chart 2 is above the horizon, pointing to the importance of that collective focus mentioned near the top of this post. Racking out our focus to encompass that broad view could be scary at times, but it should also be enlightening. Let's hope that this racking out process helps over time to fuel the new stage in human evolution that the world seriously needs right now. Again, it's not all doom and gloom; even the academics and experts at  Forein Policy seem to concur. What follows is an extended excerpt from an article they published about "reasons to feel optimistic about 2022:" 

"1. The developing world will be vaccinated....

2. We’ll add more sustainable power to the grid than ever before...
Next year is on track to register the largest increase in global electricity generation from renewables ever. The world’s biggest solar farm will become operational in Abu Dhabi, but it’s not just wind and solar that will be growing. There has also been a global reappraisal of zero-carbon nuclear power, with countries increasingly drawn to it as part of the solution for cutting emissions. We’re also likely to see a growing debate over decisions to prematurely shut down existing nuclear power plants in countries including the United States and perhaps even the poster child of anti-nuclear sentiment, Germany (though we’re not holding our breath). Better, safer technology is on its way, too: In the United States, NuScale Power is developing modular reactors and expected to go public this year, and the National Spherical Torus Experiment fusion reactor will finally be fired up.

3. The world’s largest country will be a democracy. - based on india's becoming the most populous nation on earth, over China, where birth rates are declining...
India’s population numbers also portend greater upside economic potential. Between now and 2050, India’s working-age population is projected to increase by 199 million, while China’s will fall by 160 million as its workforce ages into retirement. And India—until recently a very poor country—can now build on two decades of strong performance in rolling out the basic services of a modern economy: By 2019, 72 percent of Indian women had their own bank account, up from about 20 percent two decades ago; and 98 percent of households had access to electricity, up from about 50 percent in 1992. Meanwhile, China appears in the throes of a considerable economic hangover, including a deep and ongoing real estate crisis.

4. The advanced economies will bounce back to their pre-pandemic track... 

5. It’s the year of the tiger...                                                                                                                         In the Chinese calendar, 2022 will be the year of the tiger. Next year will also mark the completion of TX2, a 10-year program to double the global tiger population involving 13 Asian countries. It’s the most ambitious recovery effort ever undertaken for a single species and has had considerable success...While global biodiversity is still under threat and remains inadequately protected, the tiger program is a sign we’re getting better at saving species in a way that allows coexistence and development. Much credit goes to modern agriculture: New crops, fertilizer, and mechanization allow the same amount of land to produce a lot more food, reducing the pressure to find more places to farm. That is why the world is well past peak global farmland and deforestation is, thankfully, beginning to slow. That could help save other species as well."

Astrologically, all of the above seems more than feasible for the coming year, so let's celebrate progress where we find it and face this new year with renewed hope, despite many serious challenges. Happy New Year to all...may you all be safe and well, and may you prosper and thrive in the coming year! 

Raye Robertson is a practicing astrologer, writer and former educator. A graduate of the Faculty of Astrological Studies (U.K.), Raye focuses on mundane, collective-oriented astrology, with a particular interest in current affairs, U.S. history, culture and media, the astrology of generations, and public concerns such as education and health. She’s published articles on these topics in several key astrology journals over the years, including most recently, the TMA blog. For information about individual chart readings, contact:

© Raye Robertson 2022. All rights reserved.

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