“Expect nothing, fear nothing, speak truly, and act heroically. No one can stop you.” —Marcus Aurelius
So, the “shoe” has dropped between Russia and Ukraine and we now have more insight into Russian president Putin’s intentions and plans. In a nutshell, Putin has rudely dismissed Ukraine’s sovereignty as an “historical fiction” that justifies his military “protection” of the two pro-Russia separatist regions that he decided to declare independent “People’s Republics” . Needless to say, this state of affairs promises to rapidly become devastating on a number of levels. It's hard to know where to start analyzing the situation, astrologically or otherwise, but the following coverage of US Ambassador to the UN Linda Thomas-Greenfield's remarks at Monday’s (2/21) emergency meeting of that body seems like a good place to start. From CNN:
"’We must meet the moment and we must not look away. History tells us that looking the other way in the face of such hostility will be a far more costly path,’ she said. ‘President Putin is testing our international system. He's testing our resolve and seeing just how far he can push us all.’
Thomas-Greenfield said Putin has ‘made a series of outrageous false claims about Ukraine, aimed at creating a pretext for war, and immediately thereafter announced Russian troops are entering the Donbass.’
She said his claim that Ukraine is seeking nuclear weapons from the West is untrue, adding that the US and its allies have ‘no intention of supplying nuclear weapons to Ukraine and Ukraine doesn't want them.’
She said that Putin's assertions that Russia has a rightful claim to all territories from the Russian empire of 100 years ago could include counties like Finland, Belarus, Georgia and Moldova.
‘In essence, Putin wants the world to travel back in time, to time before the United Nations to a time when empires ruled the world. But the rest of the world has moved forward. It is not 1919. It is 2022,’ she said. ‘The United Nations was founded on the principle of decolonization, not recolonization and we believe the vast majority of UN member states and the UN Security Council are committed to moving forward not going back in time.’"
No one is under the illusion that speeches like this will halt Putin’s plans: it appears instead that he’s insulated himself from all responsibility for his actions, both at home and in the Ukraine, by adopting a convenient Neptunian coat of armor: his aggrieved refusal to accept that Russia is simply not the far-reaching empire it once was. So, another “Big Lie” driving these Neptunian geopolitical times, essentially. No wonder Trump acted like he was in the presence of a “mentor” in their 2017 Helsinki conference. Since Putin's actions this past Monday, Trump has been out and about, praising Putin and calling him a "genius." Can't make this stuff up.
If Putin has his way, Ukrainians—who see themselves very much as a separate, non-Russian people, and who have already been victimized by a prior Russian invasion in 2014—will once again be victimized by Putin’s arrogance of power and Machiavellian (“the ends justify the means”) aggression. In 2014 Russian forces nabbed the Ukrainian region of Crimea, and in retrospect we can see that in doing so they took a page out of a well-worn playbook that’s endlessly re-usable. Forcibly take territory that belongs to others by claiming that the goal is to “support” pro-Russian separatists. They did this by essentially absorbing Crimea (rightfully, Ukrainian territory) into Russia on the basis of a “referendum” that was widely considered a sham. The real referendum was held in 1991 and it resulted in 92.3% of Ukrainian voters saying they wanted to be independent of the Soviet Union.
Sham tactics are nothing new for Putin’s Russia, however: before Crimea, it was Georgia in 2008, where similar “military exercise” tactics and an all-but identical “decree” were used to swoop in and bite off the regions of Abkhazia and the former South Ossetian Autonomous Region of Soviet Georgia (see map above). From Foreign Policy:
“Russia’s behavior today bears a chilling resemblance to its approach to Georgia in 2008. Five days prior to launching its military operation, the Kremlin concluded the large-scale Kavkaz-2008 exercise and announced a pullback. The Georgian example clearly shows that Russian rhetoric cannot be trusted.
Apart from heavy military mobilization, the Russian side is increasingly seeking to construct a casus belli by spreading disinformation and accusing Ukraine of planning military provocations in the eastern Donbass region. Throughout eight years of ongoing war, the Ukrainian government has never attempted to escalate the situation and retake control of the occupied parts of the Donbass region. It is hardly believable that Kyiv would take such a risk at a time when Russia is launching its largest military mobilization in decades.
Putin has gone further, issuing 'genocide claims regarding killings allegedly taking place in the Donbass region. Russia is following its well-known playbook.”
So, as Ukraine’s Ambassador to the UN, Sergiy Kyslytsya put it in yesterday’s emergency meeting at the UN, “the Kremlin’s copy machine works very well....who’s next?” Importantly, Russian troops were ordered to enter (in violation of the 2014-5 international Minsk agreements) the Ukraine territories in question, so any doubt that Putin intended to invade Ukraine seems to be over. Ukraine does not recognize the “independence” of the “People’s Republics” Russia decided to fabricate within Ukrainian borders, but so far it plans no aggression against Russia. If and when the hostilities Putin has been working to manufacture break out, forcing Ukrainians to defend themselves, it will be Russia’s doing, full stop. More on this below.
These key updates from the Washington Post are a good place to start:
First, we’re told that Germany will halt authorization of Nord Stream 2 pipeline; second, Britain has come forward with heavy sanctions, as follows:
“Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced Britain’s first tranche of sanctions against Russia on Tuesday for its latest moves into Ukraine, targeting five Russian banks and three Russian billionaires who are members of President Vladimir Putin’s inner circle. Speaking in the House of Commons, Johnson said any assets held in Britain by the banks and individuals will be frozen and that the three business executives will be banned from entering the country and doing business here. The three billionaires are:
Gennady Timchenko, 69, owner of the investment firm Volga Group, which has holdings in energy and infrastructure, with a headquarters in Luxembourg.
Boris Rotenberg, 65, a co-owner of SGM (Stroygazmontazh) Group, a construction company specializing in oil and gas pipelines and electrical power supply lines in Russia. The group was also involved in construction for the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia.
Igor Rotenberg, 48, Boris Rotenberg’s nephew. He was majority shareholder in Gazprom Drilling, an energy company, until 2021.”
Third, the White House issued a statement supporting Germany’s actions regarding the Nordstream pipeline, and it has acknowledged that Russia’s actions to date do constitute an actual “invasion.” This is key because the onset of invasion has been considered the “trigger” for a long list of punitive sanctions. Again, from the Washington Post:
“Jonathan Finer, the White House principal deputy national security adviser, used the term ‘invasion’ Tuesday to describe Russia’s deployment of troops into two pro-Russian separatist regions of Ukraine.
‘We think this is, yes, the beginning of an invasion, Russia’s latest invasion into Ukraine, and you’re already seeing the beginning of our response,’ Finer said during a CNN interview in which he was pressed on whether the term is appropriate. He added that the White House would have more to say Tuesday about additional sanctions on Russia in response to the ‘egregious step they took yesterday away from diplomacy and down the further path toward war.’
Additional comments condemning Russian actions and pledging solidarity with Ukraine keep pouring in, from Australia, Japan and many others. So, will the condemnation of world leaders sway Putin’s actions at this point? Not likely—his so-called new “separatist” ally in eastern Ukraine has already “called on the Kyiv government Tuesday to ‘withdraw’ its forces or the region, backed by Russia’s military, would ‘take measures,’ according to Russian state-owned media, an ominous warning that could signal a further invasion of Ukraine.”
|World leaders swiftly condemned Putin's actions.|
|Lithuania Prime Minister, Ingrida Šimonytė|
“Putin just put Kafka and Orwell to shame: no limits to dictator’s imagination, no lows too low, no lies too blatant, no red lines too red to cross. What we witnessed tonight might seem surreal for democratic world. But the way we respond will define us for the generations to come.”
To his credit, recent news indicates that Biden has joined the growing list of those imposing heavy sanctions on Russia, but of course, nothing he does will ever be enough for some politicos. Even so, this crisis has elicited a more robust, united bipartisan response than anything we’ve seen in recent years.
So, what can we say about all this astrologically? It’s going to be impossible at this juncture to pin down an actual time at which Russia invaded Ukrainian territory, but this Monday (2/21/2022) was, to a great extent, one long exercise in the violation of Ukrainian sovereignty, so I suspect a dawn chart cast for that date in Moscow, set against the radix Russian Federation chart  will give us some insight into the day’s events from Putin's perspective. Clearly, he woke up yesterday with an agenda in mind, and the day was consumed with rolling it out. We can consider some details from his natal chart that tie into it all as we go.
Then, a similar 2/21/2022 chart set against the Ukraine Independence chart of 1991  should tell us something from their perspective. Because the U.S. is inextricably involved in responding to the events of yesterday, however, let’s first consider that same dawn chart cast for Washington, D.C.
The day dawns in DC
Chart #1: Ukraine Invasion day, February 21, 2022, 6:51 a.m. (dawn chart), Washington, D.C. Tropical Equal Houses, True Node. All charts cast on Kepler 8.0 and courtesy of Cosmic Patterns Software.
As happens with so many issues in the U.S. right now, there appear to be countervailing forces at work within this chart that may undermine America’s ability to effectively lead the way through this Ukraine invasion crisis. Pisces rising, ruled by 1st house Neptune suggests a less than firm response, and Neptune’s trine to the 9th house Scorpio South Node further suggests that, while the situation is likely to be fluid, the tide may be pushing strongly towards an undesirable international outcome.
Countering this tide, however, and not to be discounted, is 11th house Pluto (Capricorn) trine 3rd house Taurus No. Node (Taurus). Pluto widely conjoins Vesta, Mars and Venus (Capricorn) and Venus rules that No. Node, so there are indications that big financial powers will work to channel that Neptunian tide towards practical outcomes for households (Vesta), military institutions (Mars) and allies (Venus).
Saturn (Aquarius) co-rules Capricorn and very widely t-squares the Nodal Axis, but Saturn’s somewhat authoritarian tendencies in Aquarius are marginalized and contained here in the 12th house. Considering this chart is cast for Washington, D.C., however, this might suggest that Washington will ultimately have little “control” over the events unfolding in the Ukraine. “Success” of U.S. efforts in this situation will probably be measured by whether our diplomats and leaders can help produce an enforceable negotiated agreement that protects Ukraine sovereignty, but the 3Q state of the Saturn-Uranus cycle, and the Mercury/Saturn (midpoint, Aquarius) square Uranus suggest that any such agreement could be a long, frustrating time in coming. The Mars-Venus trine to Uranus (Capricorn-Taurus) indicates that there will be powerful support for getting this done, but as always, Neptune (Pisces) will have its say, sextile Mars and Venus.
Will that Neptunian undertow fatally compromise everyone's ability to negotiate an end to the conflict that seems about to erupt? It’s a bit premature to say: considering that we’re probably looking at a longer-term unfolding of events and negotiations, we will have to factor in the impact the impending new Jupiter-Neptune cycle is likely to have. That’s a story for another day, but for now, suffice to say that Russia’s recent history of territorial acquisitions/invasions under Putin is shot through with strong Neptunian dynamics.
For instance: on August 1, 2008, when Russia invaded Georgia, Uranus and Neptune were in mutual reception, with Uranus (Pisces) square Sagittarius Pluto and opposite Virgo Mars. Neptune (Aquarius) conjoined the No. Node and opposed Leo Venus; Putin got by with a lot while the world was distracted with the onset of deep recession from the soon-to-be-revealed Stock Market and Housing crises.
|Russian troops entering Crimea in 2014.|
So, strong Neptunian dynamics, indeed—plus much, much more going on during both incursions. Putin seems to have a knack for choosing powerful astrological times to launch his aggressions, so it’s probably wise to view the charts for this current situation with that in mind. He seems to favor the cover of Neptune, so I applaud the Biden administration’s approach of injecting transparency into the situations Putin has created and the actions he has taken leading into yesterday’s invasion.
Biwheel #1: (inner wheel) Vladimir Putin, October 7, 1952, 9:30 a.m. ST, St. Petersburg (Leningrad), Russia. Astrodatabank DD: conflicting/verified.; (outer wheel) Ukraine Invasion, February 21, 2022, 7:39 a.m. (dawn chart, no exact time known), Moscow, Russia. Tropical Equal Houses, True Node. All charts cast on Kepler 8.0 and courtesy of Cosmic Patterns Software.
Even though this analysis is meant to be about the view from Russia, it's really impossible to separate Putin the man from the Russia he rules with an iron fist. Because of this, we’ll take a brief look at his nativity set against the invasion chart for 2/21/2022. I haven’t cast a triwheel with all three charts we’re considering because Putin’s chart would have to be the inner wheel for that (based on his age), so let’s consider his role as driver of the Ukraine crisis here instead.
In Biwheel #2 we’ll see how close the invasion event initiated yesterday is unfolding to the recent Russian Federation’s Saturn return—Invasion Saturn would have passed over Russia’s radix Saturn this past year, perhaps eliciting a “now or never” sense of determination in the nation and especially in Putin, whose natal Saturn-Sun-Neptune conjunction in Libra (assuming we can believe published data)  closely trines Invasion Saturn.
|Russian president, Vladimir Putin|
Considering Invasion Saturn (Aquarius) falls trine his natal Saturn and opposite his natal Pluto (Leo), he’s quite likely feeling greatly empowered and determined to embrace even harder Power writ large. This resolve appears to be fueled by his aggrieved attitude (expressed quite powerfully in a speech he gave on this day), which probably festers in him with that Invasion Saturn t-squaring his Scorpio Venus-Jupiter opposition. Saturn has been transiting t-square this opposition for months, but it’s now within orb of his Aquarius No. Node: perhaps this has produced pressure, adding to his aggrieved sense that the world has “denied” him his Destiny thus far. Many observers have emphasized that for Putin, rebuilding the former glories of the Soviet Union is deeply personal—that is certainly evident here.
Putin may have a rude awakening in store, however: Invasion Uranus (Taurus) tightly opposes his natal Venus (Scorpio) and will soon conjoin his Jupiter (Taurus). With his chart being so “conflicted/unverified,” we can’t say much about house placements for any of this, but it’s quite possible Invasion Uranus could catch him off-guard because it forms the third leg of an interchart Yod: Invasion Jupiter sextiles Uranus (Pisces-Taurus), and both inconjunct his Libra Sun, so he could find himself on the proverbial “horns of a dilemma.” He’s put his would-be critic and opponent Alexei Novalny away, but will he be able to control the popular backlash that could result from his actions in Ukraine? Or are the Russian people sufficiently invested in his ambitions to go along for the tough ride ahead? Even the most sophisticated propaganda machines can falter when outside sanctions make putting food on the table difficult. Here’s where former U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright’s opinion piece in today’s NY Times makes valuable observations, calling Putin’s invasion of Ukraine an “historic error:”
“In the 20-odd years since we met, Mr. Putin has charted his course by ditching democratic development for Stalin’s playbook. He has collected political and economic power for himself — co-opting or crushing potential competition — while pushing to re-establish a sphere of Russian dominance through parts of the former Soviet Union. Like other authoritarians, he equates his own well-being with that of the nation and opposition with treason. He is sure that Americans mirror both his cynicism and his lust for power and that in a world where everyone lies, he is under no obligation to tell the truth. Because he believes that the United States dominates its own region by force, he thinks Russia has the same right.
Mr. Putin has for years sought to burnish his country’s international reputation, expand Russia’s military and economic might, weaken NATO and divide Europe (while driving a wedge between it and the United States). Ukraine features in all of that.
Instead of paving Russia’s path to greatness, invading Ukraine would ensure Mr. Putin’s infamy by leaving his country diplomatically isolated, economically crippled and strategically vulnerable in the face of a stronger, more united Western alliance....”
Will Putin stop short of making his people suffer so egregiously? We’ve seen him lend military support to Bashar al-Assad as he’s waged a horrific war against his own Syrian people for 11 years now; perhaps that tells us something.
Let’s now consider Biwheel #2 for more focused insight into how all this will go over in Russia.
Biwheel #2: (inner wheel) Russian Federation, December 25, 1991, 5:45 p.m. ST, Moscow, Russia (see Note “i” for source); (outer wheel) Ukraine Invasion, February 21, 2022, 7:39 a.m. (dawn chart, no exact time known), Moscow, Russia. Tropical Equal Houses, True Node. All charts cast on Kepler 8.0 and courtesy of Cosmic Patterns Software.
Invasion Saturn (Aquarius) again plays a key role: here it squares Russia’s Pluto-Venus conjunction (Scorpio), likely reflecting the big losses that overseas sanctions will inflict on the Russian economy, with more to come. Notice that Invasion Nodal Axis (Taurus-Scorpio) also cuts across that Venus-Pluto conjunction, with the So. Node aligned on the Scorpio end. This suggests that Putin (represented in the Russia chart by a steely Capricorn Sun, disposed by the chart’s Aquarius Saturn) has embraced the role of the “punitive Father” of his nation. Indeed, we might wonder whether, on some level, he actually feels that the nation “deserves” the hardship he’s about to inflict on it. Those familiar with the Nikolai Gogol story Taras Bulba might see a common theme here. Long story short, to oppose the Father in any way is a death sentence.
|From Mykola Lysenko's Opera, Taras Bulba.|
Invasion Uranus (Taurus) squares Russia Saturn (Aquarius) a bit more tightly than it squares Invasion Saturn (Aquarius) at the moment, so financial upset (Taurus Uranus) is the notable theme that seems to be repeatedly reinforced here. This square, especially as it ties in with a grand earth trine, completed by Invasion Venus-Mars (Capricorn) and Russia Jupiter (Virgo), could fortify Russian forces and provide their movements with some easy shock value. The manner in which Putin revealed his “hand” the day of this chart was pretty shocking in itself, even though the world was anticipating some move on his part—injecting as much transparency as possible into his plans from here on will remain critical.
|Authoritarians with shared interests.|
“Ukraine is, after all, a key member of Xi’s signature Belt and Road Initiative—a $1 trillion repaving of the fabled Silk Road—with whom China enjoyed over $15 billion of bilateral trade in 2020. ‘I attach great importance to the development of the China-Ukraine strategic partnership,’ Xi said, hailing a ‘deepening political mutual trust, fruitful cooperation in various fields and even closer people-to-people and cultural exchanges.’”
So, as we might expect during the waning half of a Jupiter cycle, support and protection may come into question, rather than gain strength over the coming days. The Invasion Uranus-Russia Jupiter-to-Uranus-Neptune grand trine (Taurus-Virgo-Capricorn) may be helpful for a while, but it’s hard to say if that will last or will be upset by other dynamics. As Uranus continues its tour of Taurus in the coming year, it will more closely oppose Russia Venus-Pluto; at that juncture, the economic breakdown of the nation could go from being a threat to being a reality.
On the other hand, transiting Jupiter will conjoin Neptune at 23°+Pisces this coming April and will be almost exactly trine Russia Venus-Pluto, which could signal an infusion of financial support for Putin’s efforts; could that be China’s way of settling any ambivalence it might be feeling in regards to this dispute? Additional allies may also surface; time will tell, clearly. Bottom line, Putin’s fortunes could wax and wane in the days ahead, and it’s probably best to not take anything for granted.
Let’s now turn our attention to Biwheel #3, setting the Invasion chart against the Ukraine Independence chart. Our goal here is to glean how Putin’s actions of 2/21 are being received in the Ukraine.
The view from K’yiv
You’ll notice ahead that the Russia and Ukraine charts have a lot in common, and so many of the key transits are represented in both cases: in fact, both nations were “reborn” in their present form in December, 1991; first the Ukraine, where a December 1st referendum decided Ukraine’s independence from the Soviet Union with a resounding 92.3%+ of voters saying “yes.” Then on December 25th, the USSR flag was lowered for the last time and the Russian Federation flag was raised (the moment reflected in the inner wheel of Biwheel #2 above). The Russian Federation represents what was left of the Soviet Union after the events of 1989-91, a state of affairs that clearly roils Putin to this day.
According to Nikolas Campion’s research for the chart you see here, in Ukraine's long history dating back to June 28 988, it had experienced only one other very brief period of independent rule (January 1918-December 1922) before 1991—happily, with that referendum Ukraine gave itself a new lease on life and a chance to restore and nourish its historical character and identity. It’s a shame Putin can’t wish them well and move on.
Biwheel #3. (inner wheel) Ukraine Referendum (Independence), December 1, 1991, 6:00 p.m., Kiev (K’yiv), Ukraine. (See Note “ii” for source); (outer wheel) Ukraine Invasion, February 21, 2022, 7:39 a.m. (dawn chart, no exact time known). Tropical Equal Houses, True Node. All charts cast on Kepler 8.0 and courtesy of Cosmic Patterns Software.
The Referendum (hereafter, UKR) chart is timed pretty carefully, according to Campion’s research into media reports of the referendum results that December 1st, so this time represents the moment Ukraine began functioning as an independent nation. I bring this up so we can be assured the angles and house placements in this chart are valid.
With that in mind, how interesting is it that UKR Nodal axis-Uranus and Neptune (Capricorn-Cancer) stretch straight across, conjunct the chart’s ASC-DSC horizon. Clearly, the 1990s Uranus-Neptune conjunction was a key force driving Ukraine’s independent rebirth. The Invasion Venus-Mars conjunction (Capricorn) falls conjunct UKR Uranus-Neptune, perhaps reflecting the assistance Ukraine is receiving from allied and NATO nations.
Notice that Invasion Uranus (Taurus) forms an interchart grand trine with those Capricorn points and UKR Jupiter-Vesta (Virgo). We saw similar dynamics in Biwheel #2 with Russia’s chart, and it is quite possible that Ukraine’s economy will take a major hit, as well, but it may have more willing benefactors to fall back on than Russia will. I do have to wonder how Putin’s strategy of surrounding Ukraine with his troops and military equipment will play out, however: there’s too much strong Saturn energy suffusing both charts for comfort. Let’s hope Ukraine’s Zelensky has some brilliant military commanders.
Invasion Jupiter (Pisces) opposes UKR Jupiter (Virgo), turning the grand trine discussed above into a kite configuration. Again, the sense of a series of events being unleashed and taking flight is palpable here; Invasion Jupiter falls in the UKR 9th house and as noted in Biwheel #2, it’s very close to catching up with Invasion Neptune (Pisces), sitting further on in that house, square UKR Mercury (Rx, Sagittarius) and trine UKR Pluto (Scorpio). No doubt, Ukraine finds itself at a critical ideological and existential juncture; I suspect that an upswelling of popular support will help. Even so, the Invasion Neptune quincunx to UKR Venus (ruling the 4th house of the grass roots) may make for some domestic disunity or divisiveness. We’re already seeing that with separatist elements in the Donbas, of course, but it’ll be interesting to see whether Zelenskiy will have what it takes to keep his people mostly united in the face of the Russian war machine. If they can remain united, I suspect the world will flock to their assistance. Jupiter’s transit over their 9th and 10th houses could be helpful.
Invasion Pluto (Capricorn) conjoins UKR Saturn (Aquarius) and squares UKR Venus (Libra) and Invasion Moon (Libra). Needless to say, is this invasion turns into an actual shooting war, it will be hugely destructive to Ukraine’s infrastructures, its economy and its people. Invasion Mars-Venus (Capricorn) sextiles UKR Pluto-Pallas (Scorpio); between this and the Pluto-Saturn dynamics above, there may be an opening for the UN to act on behalf of Ukraine in the face of Russia’s bald-faced aggression. Russia is violating international laws and global agreements with the moves it has made already, and Putin probably doesn’t care what the world community thinks, but we can hope that these global institutions will have some clout in the situation.
I was horrified to hear Trump praise Putin as a “genius” these past couple days; all I can think is perhaps that tells us all we need to know about why Trump was impeached the first time around. Remember that “perfect call” between him and Ukraine’s President Zelensky in which Trump tried to strong-arm Zelensky into interfering in our politics on his behalf in return for military aid that he (Trump) wanted to withold? Zelensky’s refusal to get involved should tell us everything we need to know about him, too—he actually has some integrity, while Trump, not so much.
Not surprisingly, Trump appears to be courting Putin once again, well ahead of 2024. And although I haven’t tuned in to any of it, I suspect Fox and like-minded right-wing networks have already started sowing discord and disunity over the Ukraine issue – nothing surprising, but Trump’s shameless support of Putin is perhaps the clearest wake-up call, if we needed one. Yes, evil may prevail in this situation if those who are horrified by it all are not vigilant and prepared to take action and to make sacrifices. We will assuredly experience some fall-out from sanctions lodged against Russia and from Ukraine’s likely inability to keep its exports flowing out. These difficulties could, in fact, be only the tip of the iceberg. But then history tells us what it took in the 1940s to put this brand of evil in its place; let’s hope this situation doesn’t get to that.
Love, Light and Hope to our friends in Ukraine and to us all!
 Russia-Flag-Raised (Russian Federation radix), December 25, 1991, 5:45 p.m. ST (17:45 GMT), Moscow, Russia. Chart #280: Nicholas Campion, Book of World Horoscopes, Rev. & Updated, 2004, the Wessex Astrologer, Bournemouth, UK, pp. 272-3.
 December 1, 1991, 6:00 p.m. ST (18:00 GMT), Kyiv, Ukraine. Chart #342: Nicholas Campion, Book of World Horoscopes, Rev. & Updated, 2004, the Wessex Astrologer, Bournemouth, UK, pp. 325-6.
 Vladimir Putin, October 7, 1952, 9:30 a.m. ST, St. Petersburg (Leningrad), Russia. Astrodatabank rated DD: conflicting/unverified.
Raye Robertson is a practicing astrologer, writer and former educator. A graduate of the Faculty of Astrological Studies (U.K.), Raye focuses on mundane, collective-oriented astrology, with a particular interest in current affairs, U.S. history, culture and media, the astrology of generations, and public concerns such as education and health. She’s published articles on these topics in several key astrology journals over the years, including most recently, the TMA blog. For information about individual chart readings, contact: firstname.lastname@example.org.
© Raye Robertson 2022. All rights reserved.